More regime changes on the US mind?

“I took over at the end of the Vietnam War. I was in control, right? Big general in charge. So I say, ‘Cut off the shipment of weapons.’ So I tell the Pentagon, ‘Cut off the shipment of weapons.’ I got a phone call from Henry Kissinger saying, ‘The weapons are going to continue at the wartime rate.’ -General Truffey

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Netanyahu and his favorite Arab sidekick Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman are in the driver’s seat. So much for “America First.”

2 May, 2018

snippits:

Developments with respect to the JCPOA are consistent with those in the other major theater where US policy, led by Israel and Saudi Arabia, clashes with Iran: a stepped-up war in Syria. According to the Israeli site DEBKAfile, during his April 29 visit to Israel – the day before Netanyahu’s presentation – newly minted US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo met with the Israeli prime minister and gave him a thumbs-up for military action.

Syria is viewed mainly as a chessboard piece in a larger game: Irania delenda est.. Israeli Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman has said “the Iranian regime is in its final days and will soon collapse.”

The Russians, in particular, have painful experience with Washington regarding matters they thought were settled, only to see the western side contemptuously discard any commitments: NATO expansion (after a promise not to expand eastward “by one inch”), US withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty (reportedly at the urging of John Bolton, now back in power as Trump’s National Security Adviser), UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1244 regarding Kosovo’s status as an autonomous province of Serbia (until Washington and Brussels insisted on independence), UNSC approval for a limited “humanitarian mission” in Benghazi in 2011 (until NATO opted for an unlimited kill-Ghaddafi mission), or the various agreements on Ukraine (the February 2014 power-sharing deal between President Viktor Yanukovych and the “Maidan” leaders that didn’t even last one day, the Minsk I and II agreements that were never fully implemented), and so forth.

The pieces are falling into place for a repeat of 2003, with the “q” in Iraq changed into an “n” for Iran.  A number of Washington big shots, including many with influence with Trump, are supporters of the terrorist Islamic-Marxist – and of course Saudi-funded – “People’s Mujahedin” (Mojahedin-e Khalq; MEK).

Despite no discernible domestic support in Iran, MEK is being groomed as the core of a replacement “democratic” regime to be installed at the appropriate time, a kind of collective equivalent of Ahmed Chalabi who was parachuted” into Iraq as Washington’s satrap in 2003.

The fate of the Iran nuclear deal and the course of the war in Syria are two sides of the same coin. The questions of whether or not Iran did have a military nuclear program, or lied about it, or is capable of restarting one are today as irrelevant as whether or not Saddam Hussein really had “weapons of mass destruction” (WMDs) in 2002. Claims of Iran’s having violated the JCPOA are significant mainly as props for what comes next.

WMDs or no WMDs, the current Washington administration – that includes some of the very same people who served in the George W. Bush administration – has decided on regime change in Iran the way they had earlier decided on regime change in Iraq. If that can be done via political and economic means, they’re happy to go that route. It military force is needed, that’s on the table too.

FULL ARTICLE

Netanyahu’s Nuclear Nothingburger

That the Trump administration has evidently colluded with Israel to influence Americans’ understanding of a major strategic issue fits an established, dispiriting pattern. If the president can convince us that the Iran nuclear deal damages our national interest, which encompasses the security of our allies, very well. But if he can’t, then I’d prefer not to hear it from a foreign leader.

On Monday morning, Middle East watchers awoke to astonishing news from Israel. A headline in The Jerusalem Post read, “Netanyahu to Address Country with ‘Dramatic News About Iran.’” As the day passed, details remained sparse, but it became clear that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was going to unveil secret evidence of Iranian cheating on the nuclear deal. The timing of the announcement, right after the new American secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, met with Mr. Netanyahu, accentuated its gravity.

Monday afternoon, just a bit behind schedule, Mr. Netanyahu took to the stage next to an enormous screen. The headlines had suggested he would be in his office at a desk or podium to share news of existential importance. Instead, he presented a minor-league TED Talk — and in English, no less. Outside the elite, fewer and fewer people in Israel speak English, so the notion of a country’s leader supposedly addressing his compatriots in a foreign language on a matter of national security added to the weirdness of the performance.

The substance of Mr. Netanyahu’s allegedly shattering revelation was correspondingly strange. Of greatest interest was the disclosure of a covert operation that spirited Iran’s nuclear archives out of the country for analysis in Israel. These records, according to Mr. Netanyahu, consisted of 55,000 pages and 183 CDs — an enormous load — which nicely demonstrated what can happen when a resourceful and audacious intelligence community in one country meets staggering carelessness and incompetence in another.

The archive had been stored in what Mr. Netanyahu described as a derelict warehouse in Tehran. The photos he displayed indicated that there did not even appear to be a lock on the door. One wonders how important the Iranians thought these documents were, given the slapdash approach they took to storing them. In any case, the Mossad operation that netted this haul apparently took place in January and President Trump was briefed on it shortly afterward.

 It quickly became obvious in Mr. Netanyahu’s presentation, however, that these materials were already widely known and that they covered a weapons program that was shut down in 2003, perhaps because Iran’s leaders reckoned that they were next on the American hit list after Saddam Hussein was toppled, and did not want to get caught with their hand in the nuclear cookie jar. Or perhaps, with Iraq disarmed by the United States, it no longer needed the program.

But this development has been explored exhaustively already in a 2007 United States National Intelligence Estimate that began with this conclusion: “We judge with high confidence that in fall 2003, Tehran halted its nuclear weapons program.”

The Iranian archive that Mr. Netanyahu revealed did show clearly that even though the program had been halted, Iran looked forward to restarting it in the future. This is scarcely surprising. After the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, when Iran’s cities bombarded by Iraqi missiles and its troops attacked with chemical weapons, Iranian leaders probably figured that having a nuclear capacity was a good idea. It probably looked even better when they saw the ease with which the United States defeated Hussein, who possessed one of the region’s largest militaries, twice in 12 years.

When the Iranians finally resumed their program, presumably feeling more confident as the George W. Bush administration’s effort to domesticate Iraq ran aground, they went at it with gusto. From 2006 to 2013 they installed 20,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium at various locations, including an underground complex called Fordow dug secretly into the base of a mountain and intended to be bombproof. Given that Israel had destroyed Iraq’s nuclear reactor in 1981 and Syria’s in 2007 in air raids, both the choice of location and secrecy surrounding it would have made sense from an Iranian perspective. This too is old news.

 

It is also widely understood, not least by the American government, that Iran — having made the decision in 2015 to put off its nuclear program for 10 years for a shot at economic development — is in compliance with the nuclear agreement. And it is in compliance, then however much its leaders might lust in their hearts for nuclear weapons, the fact remains that they are not making them.

So why did Mr. Netanyahu do his dog and pony show? Because the United States has threatened to withdraw from the nuclear deal, claiming it was a “political agreement” whose validity expired along with the Obama administration that negotiated it. The diplomatic novelty of this approach is matched only by a related Trump doctrine that Iran is in violation of the “spirit” of the agreement, even if it is abiding by the letter of the law.

A withdrawal decision, one way or another, is to be announced on May 12. Since the members of Congress will have a say on whether to reimpose sanctions on Iran, Mr. Netanyahu’s pitch must surely have been directed to them.

Americans might distrust the C.I.A. and wince when recalling its verdict that Hussein’s nuclear, chemical and biological capacity was a “slam dunk,” but even Democrats might be seduced by Mossad’s reputation and susceptible to Mr. Netanyahu’s mishmash of stale reporting, truisms and outright hucksterism, especially given the credibility the current Israeli government enjoys in key constituencies. In 2015, Mr. Netanyahu deployed this stratagem before a joint session of Congress; this time, he deployed it from an auditorium in Israel’s Ministry of Defense.

That the Trump administration has evidently colluded with Israel to influence Americans’ understanding of a major strategic issue fits an established, dispiriting pattern. If the president can convince us that the Iran nuclear deal damages our national interest, which encompasses the security of our allies, very well. But if he can’t, then I’d prefer not to hear it from a foreign leader.

 

Zionist US Will Build New Military Base in Zionist Argentine

Base will be operated by DEA, SOUTHCOM, and U.S. Homeland Security. Who knew that Argentina was part of the U.S. homeland.  Shalom and Sieg Heil !

Argentine President Mauricio Macri is also letting in more DEA, FBI, and U.S. military forces to control narcotrafficking and terrorism within the country.

What do Israeli imperialism in the Middle East, Zionist lobby groups and Wall Street vulture capitalism in Argentina have in common? They are all part of a vast conspiracy to demonize Iran, enrich plutocratic poobahs, bring down the Argentine government and gain control of the South American country’s land and natural resources. The truth was revealed on April 18 by Jorge Elbaum in Pagina 12, a Buenos Aires newspaper. Zionist Intrigue in Argentina Exposed 

Political commentator James Petras published an English account in late April on his website but AMERICAN FREE PRESS is the lone national newspaper reporting it. The Zionist-controlled mainstream media have suppressed the story.

Elbaum, one of Argentina’s leading Jews, is the former executive director of the Delegation for Argentine Jewish Associations (DAIA). Considering himself Argentinian first, he publicized the Zionist plot against his country following the murder of Argentine federal prosecutor Alberto Nisman, who was also Jewish. The original article in Spanish appeared as “Vultures, Nisman, DAIA: The Money Route.”

Argentina is allowing the U.S. to build a new military base at its northern border with Brazil and Paraguay. Officials of the South American country also announced that it will work with Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) at the triple border “to analyze where drugs are coming from.”

Argentina’s Minister of Security, Patricia Bullrich announced in Washington that the Mauricio Macri administration is going to allow the U.S. to build a military base in Posadas, Misiones, bordering Brazil and Paraguay.

Bullrich says her government is creating “an analysis center with Paraguay and Brasil (and the U.S.) to figure out where, how and with whom narco traffickers operate” at the triple border region.

This “task force,” as its being called, will operate in conjunction with the DEA, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the U.S. Southern Command, which watches over U.S. operations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

This will be the second task force against drug trafficking in Argentina. The first one was installed in Salta province located near the borders with Bolivia and Chile during the Barack Obama administration.

Bullrich told the press that the DEA initially wanted Argentine officials to send drug samples to the U.S. so the agency could analyze them for their origin. She said this would be against Argentine law and that officials within the country would analyze the drugs.

The U.S. and Argentine functionaries also discussed the suspected presence of Lebanese Hezbollah, an organization the U.S. government considers a terrorist group, at the border shared by Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay.

“It’s important for our government to collaborate (with the U.S.) and that they collaborate with us. We’re going to work together at the triple border regarding terrorism. We think we’ll have DEA and other agencies there to better understand what’s happening in the region,” Bullrich assured the press.

The minister of security also met with Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) officials in Washington to discuss their training of Argentine Federal Police.

After leaving Washington Bullrich flew to Miami to meet with the chief of U.S. Southern Command, Admiral Kurt W. Tidd and the Defense Minister of Argentina, Oscar Aguad.

Admiral Tidd was recently in Colombia meeting with its military forces.

Human rights organizations are protesting the increased U.S. military presence in Latin American and the Caribbean.

The former Argentine ambassador to Venezuela and the United Kingdom, Alicia Castro, tweeted of Bullrich’s proposed policies, “Do you want to see how the U.S. … ‘combats terrorism’? Look at the Middle East devastated. And ‘combating narcotrafficking’? (sic) Look at the cartels and assassinations in Colombia y Mexico, the places where the DEA intervenes.”

The humiliating downing of the Israeli fighter jets

  An attempt to conduct yet another airstrike against targets in Syria ended badly for the Israeli military, as several of its warplanes were reportedly shot down by local air defense units.

Israel’s breech of Syria’s sovereignty is labeled ‘self-defense’: The Syrian anti-air missiles which hit an Israeli F-16 early Saturday, Feb. 10, are part of a system operated with and commanded by the Russians from their Kheimim air base. The F-16 was shot down during an Israeli air strike against the Iranian facility at the T-4 air base near Palmyra, which launched a UAV into Israeli airspace that morning. The ongoing clash has therefore gone way beyond an Israeli confrontation with Syria and Iran and marks a serious deterioration in the security situation on Israel’s northern border. debka.com (Israel intellegence)

Iran has rejected as “ridiculous” claims by the Israeli regime that it had intercepted an Iranian drone launched from Syria, stressing the Islamic Republic’s military advisory presence in the Arab country is at the request of Syria’s “constitutional and legitimate” government.

The people of South Lebanon quickly responded by posting this sign saying: “Your jets have been downed”. haha.

Feb 10, 2018

“Claims about the flight of an Iranian drone … are too ridiculous to be addressed because the Islamic Republic of Iran has advisory presence in Syria at the request of the country’s legitimate and constitutional government,” Iranian Foreign Ministry Spokesman Bahram Qassemi said on Saturday.

“The government and army of Syria as an independent country have a legitimate right to defend [the country’s] territorial integrity and counter any type of foreign aggression,” he added.

The Iranian spokesperson emphasized that the “illegitimate” Israeli regime cannot cover up its atrocities and crimes against Muslim nations in the region by playing a blame game and spreading lies.

Resilient Syrians will not accept Israeli aggression: Velayati

Meanwhile, a senior adviser to Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei on international affairs said the resilient Syrian people will never tolerate the Israeli regime’s aggression.

Speaking to reporters in Tehran, Ali Akbar Velayati added that the Syrian government and nation have proved that they would sacrifice themselves to “safeguard their country’s territorial integrity, security and independence.”

He noted that the Syrian people have managed to achieve victory in an “international war”, in which more than 80 countries participated to dispatch terrorists to the Arab country.

The Syrian military on Saturday hit at least one intruding Israeli F-16 warplane that attacked positions inside the Syrian territory, sending it down in flames and smoke.

Syria’s state TV cited a military official as saying that Syrian aerial defense had responded to Israeli “aggression” against an army base in the center of the Arab country.

Later in the day, the Israeli military claimed that it had attacked positions inside the Syrian territory after it intercepted an Iranian drone launched from Syria.

A pro-Syrian military alliance said that the Israeli claim about a drone intrusion was bogus.

The alliance said in a statement that Israel had targeted a drone base in Syria whose unmanned aircraft were used against the Daesh terrorist group.

It also pledged a “severe and serious” response to the Israeli act of “terrorism.”

A senior commander of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) said on Saturday that Iran would confirm no report coming out of Israel “because the Israelis are liars.”

Brigadier General Hossein Salami, the IRGC’s second-in-command, told Tasnim news agency that Iran would only confirm a drone interception if Syria made that confirmation.

He also said that Iran has no military presence in Syria and that the Syrian Army was adequately capable of defending the Syrian territory.

Lebanon condemns Israel’s aggression against Syria

The Lebanese Foreign Ministry, in a statement, denounced Israel’s aggression against Syria, saying Beirut supports Damascus’ “legitimate right” to defend itself and respond to Israel’s “aggression.”

An analyst says Syria, under international law, had every right to shoot down the Israeli fighter jet which had invaded its airspace,

The statement added that such “aggressive policy” threatens stability in

the region and urged concerned countries to “rein in” Israel.

The Lebanese Defense Ministry also denounced the use of Lebanon’s air space for any Israeli strike on Syria.

Separately, Lebanese President Michel Aoun discussed the latest Israeli aggression against Syria with Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri and Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri.

presstv

In Zio-America, the ‘Syria experts’ have turned into ‘Iran experts’ overnight

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The ease with which American foreign policy “experts” can suddenly reinvent themselves, switching focus as the DC mood changes, exposes the Washington think tank racket as a giant sham designed to manipulate opinion.

Omri Ceren from the right-wing Likud-aligned Israel Project was also on the panel. Echoing Israeli government talking points, he called for the US to spread a “freedom agenda” in Iran – which is code for regime change.

When protests broke out in Iran at the end of 2017, Washington think tanks were ecstatic. They saw an opportunity to push for regime change and they went for it. Almost overnight, all of the self-proclaimed “Syria experts” who spent the last several years arguing for the overthrow of Syrian President Bashar Assad shifted their focus to Tehran.

The Hudson Institute, a conservative pro-war Washington outfit funded by major corporations and oil companies, is a case in point. On January 16, Hudson hosted a panel of so-called experts, titled “Iran Protests: Consequences for the Region and Opportunities for the Trump Administration.” The panel featured a who’s who of warmongers discussing how to weaken yet another Middle Eastern state.

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The Iranian expats are equivalent to the anti-Castro Cuban expats. They serve imperialism because imperialism serves them.

From ‘Russian meddling’ to Iran regime change: Social media as tools of US policy

The most notorious among them was regime change aficionado Charles Lister, a “senior fellow” (read lobbyist) at the Middle East Institute, an influential DC think tank that receives tens of millions of dollars from the United Arab Emirates, a country whose leadership is committed to regime change in Iran. Before he was an “Iran expert,” Lister rose to prominence agitating for regime change in Syria. He is perhaps best known for cheerleading Salafi jihadist Syrian rebel groups like Ahrar al-Sham and Nour al-Din al-Zenki, which Lister insisted were moderate despite their explicitly stated intention to wipe out minorities in Syria and their open alliance with Syria’s Al-Qaeda affiliate. Anyone who dared to criticize such groups or highlight their genocidal agendas quickly became targets of Lister over the years – he would brand them dictator lovers and Assadists.

It’s unclear whether Lister speaks any Arabic or whether he’s ever spent any significant amount of time in Syria or the Middle East more generally. But he says what the foreign policy establishment wants to hear, and for that, he is quoted extensively in the mainstream press on everything from Syria to Iran to even Egypt, with the New Yorker’s Robin Wright labelling him “an expert on Jihadism.”

During the Hudson panel, Lister argued against the US participating in locally negotiated ceasefires in Syria that have played a major role in de-escalating the violence that tore apart the country. Ceasefires benefit Hezbollah and Iran, warned Lister, who would apparently rather the bloodshed continue if it helps the US and its jihadist proxies. Lister also painted Israel as the ultimate victim of Iran in Syria and suggested the CIA assassinate Major General Qasem Soleimani of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. Soleimani heads Iran’s elite Quds Force, which conducts operations outside of Iran in both Iraq and Syria. He has been credited with helping to turn the tide in both countries against Al-Qaeda and Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS) which has led to American fears that he threatens US hegemony in the region.

Blind Eye

Hudson’s in-house counterterrorism expert Michael Pregent, who previously accused Iran of refusing to fight IS while arguing that the sometimes IS-allied Free Syrian Army was the only force capable of defeating the terrorist group, also agitated for the assassination of Soleimani, but he called for Israel to do the dirty work rather than the CIA.

People protest in Los Angeles, California, U.S., in support of anti-government protesters in Iran © Lucy Nicholson

Iranian prosecutor points finger at CIA, Israel and Saudi Arabia for unrest

Omri Ceren from the right-wing Likud-aligned Israel Project was also on the panel. Echoing Israeli government talking points, he called for the US to spread a “freedom agenda” in Iran – which is code for regime change.

Another speaker was Brian Katulis from the Center for American Progress, a Democratic think tank that also receives funding from the UAE. Katulis employed empty slogans about supporting “freedom and justice” in Iran. Almost everything he said was forgettable. The UAE funding might explain why these experts continually blasted Iran for supposedly destabilizing Yemen without mentioning a word about the punishing Saudi-imposed siege which has led to famine and a cholera outbreak of epic proportions that kills a Yemeni child every 10 minutes.

The Hudson panel perfectly encapsulates how these establishment experts have no actual expertise, just fancy titles and shady funding that gives them a veneer of scholarly seriousness. They shift from one country to the next and are considered authoritative without any real credentials other than being white men who provide the intellectual backbone to Washington’s permanent war agenda, which all the panelists have a history of supporting. The fact that their policy prescriptions have ended in disaster for the people of the region doesn’t slow them down.

Death Toll

The war in Iraq killed over a million people and catapulted the region into violent sectarian warfare from which it has yet to recover. The Western intervention in Libya threw that country into chaos, transforming what was once the richest nation in Africa, with the highest literacy rates, into an ungovernable gang-run state home to IS slave markets. And then there’s Syria, where the US poured billions into funding Al-Qaeda-linked rebel groups to overthrow the government, creating the worst refugee crisis since World War Two.

People protest in Tehran, Iran December 30, 2017 © Reuters

Iran: Surviving another attack supported from abroad

The men who made up the Hudson panel supported all of these disastrous wars, which goes to show that being wrong gets you places in Washington. In fact, being wrong seems to be a prerequisite for promotion in Beltway circles.

No one epitomizes this dynamic more than Peter Bergen, a national security analyst at CNN. Two decades ago Bergen produced a rare interview with Osama bin Laden and he’s been capitalizing on it for 20 years. Since then he has fallen up to expert status on any and all issues pertaining to national security, counterterrorism and the Middle East, no matter how wrong he is. He supported the conflicts in Iraq and Libya. And here he is debating an actual expert, journalist Nir Rosen, and like always, Bergen argues for more war.

Another example is Ken Pollack from the Brookings Institute. He pushed hard for the war in Iraq and US interference in Libya and Syria. Despite the disastrous consequences of these policies, he is still described as an “expert” and recently penned a report for the Atlantic Council on countering Iran.

Destabilizing Iran has long been a policy goal of the US and its Israeli and Saudi allies. But the reality is that Iran is the most stable country in the Middle East and it played a crucial role in protecting the region from IS and Al-Qaeda. Whatever one thinks of the government in Iran, and there are of course many legitimate critiques as is true of any government, Iran’s only crime is that it acts independently of American interests and for that, it must be strong-armed into submission. So, let’s hope the experts don’t have their way.

rt.com

Take a look at these amazing photos of Iran before the revolution

Iranian woman now

The same shah whom Washington was now trying to shun had been lifted to power in a 1953 coup engineered by the CIA and the British, displacing the elected Prime Minister, Mohammad Mossadegh, who had had the temerity to nationalise the Iranian oil industry. om 1941 to 1979, Iran was ruled by King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah.

From 1941 to 1979, Iran was ruled by King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah.

Shah Muhammed Reza Pahlevi, his wife, Queen Fawzia, and the little Princess Shahnaz on the grounds of their palace near Teheran, Iran, in 1942.AP

Due to Iran’s large supply of oil, proximity to India, and shared border with the Soviet Union, Britain and the US fully backed the Iranian government.

Due to Iran's large supply of oil, proximity to India, and shared border with the Soviet Union, Britain and the US fully backed the Iranian government.

Sepah Square, the main square in Tehran, Iran, April 20, 1946.AP Photo/Tom Fitzsimmons

 However, even before the Islamic Revolution, the Shah’s grip on power was unsteady.
However, even before the Islamic Revolution, the Shah's grip on power was unsteady.

This is the White Palace of the Shah of Iran at Saadabad, Tehran, as it looked in August 1953, after the government upheavals. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi returned to power August 22, when his supporters ousted Premier Mohammed Mossadegh, who had forced the Shah to flee a few days earlier. AP

 Like Ataturk, Reza Shah attempted to make religious observation subservient to the state. Part of Iran’s method of achieving this was through the banning of veils in public.

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In 1953, the Shah had to flee Iran after a Western-backed coup to overthrow Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh failed. A second coup succeeded in overthrowing Mosaddegh, who wanted to nationalize the Iranian oil industry to Britain’s chagrin, and the Shah returned to the country.

In 1953, the Shah had to flee Iran after a Western-backed coup to overthrow Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh failed. A second coup succeeded in overthrowing Mosaddegh, who wanted to nationalize the Iranian oil industry to Britain's chagrin, and the Shah returned to the country.

Pedestrians and cars travel through the main intersection of Tehran, Iran, April 20,1946. Lalezar Avenue runs up the center of the photo toward the north, while Istanbul Avenue runs left to right.AP Photo/Tom Fitzsimmons

Like Ataturk in Turkey, Reza Shah undertook a series of reforms aimed at turning Iran into a modern westernized nation.

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 These reforms included the structuring of Iran around a central Persian identity, the often brutal suppression of tribes and their laws in exchange for strong a central government, and the expansion of woman’s rights.

Like Ataturk, Reza Shah attempted to make religious observation subservient to the state.

 Part of Iran’s method of achieving this was through the banning of veils in public.
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 Women were also encouraged to attend school and receive an education.
 
 Although Reza Shah’s intentions were to turn Iran into a modern westernized state, his bans on religious garments alienated and frustrated religious conservatives and traditionalists.
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 Despite the backlash from religiously observant members of society, the Shah managed to create a seemingly cosmopolitan city life.

Despite the backlash from religiously observant members of society, the Shah managed to create a seemingly cosmopolitan city life.

Nevit Dilmen/Wikimedia Commons

 Women and men mixed freely, and educational opportunities were greatly extended. Western clothing and norms also became ingrained into large segments of the Iranian population.
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Leading the charge for westernization was the Iranian royal family. Pictured below is Empress Soraya.

Leading the charge for westernization was the Iranian royal family. Pictured below is Empress Soraya.

Empress Soraya of Persia (Iran) poses in the studio of Italian fashion designer Emilio Schuberth, left, with an evening dress made of white Organdy as the designer adjusts some pleats of his dress in Rome, Italy, May 13, 1953.AP Photo

 Under the royal family’s invitations, Iran became a popular destination for celebrities and heads of state. Here, an Italian actress and her husband visit a sports competition as guests of Iranian Princess Ashraf.

The Iranian royal family reciprocated and widely toured the world’s capitals. Here, the Shah and his wife met with Winston Churchill in London.

The Iranian royal family reciprocated and widely toured the world's capitals. Here, the Shah and his wife met with Winston Churchill in London.

British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill poses with the Shah and Queen Soraya of Persia on February 21 at his official London residence, 10 Downing Street, after they lunched with him there.AP Photo

 Toward the end of the Shah’s reign, the royal family attempted to rally the country around an increasingly historic nationalism based on the preceding Persian empires.
Toward the end of the Shah's reign, the royal family attempted to rally the country around an increasingly historic nationalism based on the preceding Persian empires.

A street scene showing pedestrians on a sidewalk, June 16, 1970, Tehran, Iran.AP Photo/Roy Essoyan

In 1967, the Shah took the old Persian title “Shahanshah,” or King of Kings, at a coronation ceremony in Tehran.

In 1967, the Shah took the old Persian title "Shahanshah," or King of Kings, at a coronation ceremony in Tehran.

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi crowning Empress Farah at their coronation ceremony in 1967.PD-IRAN

 Celebrations funded by the government were also launched throughout the country to honor the Persian roots of Iran. Here, gymnasts take part in an October 16, 1975, celebration honoring the founding of the Persian Empire.
Celebrations funded by the government were also launched throughout the country to honor the Persian roots of Iran. Here, gymnasts take part in an October 16, 1975, celebration honoring the founding of the Persian Empire.

AP Photo/Harry Koundakjian

Despite Iran’s views of the past, the government continued to value education and child development.

Despite Iran's views of the past, the government continued to value education and child development.

A street scene showing pedestrians threading their way between bumper-to-bumper traffic, June 16, 1970, Tehran, Iran.AP Photo/Roy Essoyan

 Tehran funded study abroad in Europe for Iranians, and schools and clinics were built throughout the Iranian countryside to care for poorer children as part of the Shah’s “White Revolution.”
Tehran funded study abroad in Europe for Iranians, and schools and clinics were built throughout the Iranian countryside to care for poorer children as part of the Shah's "White Revolution."

A street scene showing pedestrians on a sidewalk, June 16, 1970, Tehran, Iran.AP Photo/Roy Essoyan

High oil prices and relative stability in the Middle East contributed to a growing business class in major Iranian cities.

High oil prices and relative stability in the Middle East contributed to a growing business class in major Iranian cities.

A street scene showing pedestrians threading their way between bumper-to-bumper traffic, June 16, 1970, Tehran, Iran.AP Photo/Roy Essoyan

 Here, Iranians swim in an octagonal swimming pool at the guesthouse of the Iranian National Oil Company.
Here, Iranians swim in an octagonal swimming pool at the guesthouse of the Iranian National Oil Company.

AP Photo/Horst Faas

By 1975, Reza Shah abolished Iran’s multiparty system and concentrated ever-greater amounts of power in his own hands under the government-permitted Rastakhiz (Resurrection) party.

By 1975, Reza Shah abolished Iran's multiparty system and concentrated ever-greater amounts of power in his own hands under the government-permitted Rastakhiz (Resurrection) party.

A view of Tehran, Iran, July 1971. AP Photo/Horst Faas